Namaskaar. Part 30 of Kathopanishat commentary by Shri V. Subrahmanian on website of Vedanta Academy gives delves further into the subtle topic of nature of Brahman, Atman. The Upanishad itself asks a query and then in the very next verse 2.2.15 gives out a very powerful verse, which is well known and popular, to explain the topic with the commentator adding to the joy of learning the subject matter through his elaborate explanations.
Continuing the teaching of the nature of brahman, the AchArya, Yama, says:
एको वशी सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा
एकं रूपं बहुधा यः करोति ।
तमात्मस्थं येऽनुपश्यन्ति धीरा-
स्तेषां सुखं शाश्वतं नेतरेषाम् ॥ १२ ॥
एकः One वशी Ruler सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा of the inmost Self of all beings एकं One रूपं form बहुधा manifold यः He करोति does तम् Him आत्मस्थं situated in the mind ये those अनुपश्यन्ति who perceive धीराः wise तेषां for them सुखं happiness शाश्वतं eternal न not इतरेषाम् for others.
There is one Supreme Ruler, the inmost Self of all beings, who makes His one form manifold. Eternal happiness belongs to the wise, who perceive Him within themselves—not to others.
The upaniShad repeatedly stresses the secondless nature of brahman. brahman, being One only, naturally is the all-pervading Lord, not in need of any other entity to either establish Its existence or to support its self-effulgent nature. There is none that equals brahman or surpasses It. If such an entity were there which either equals or surpasses brahman, it would be wrong to stress the one-only nature of brahman. Also, brahman is the controller of the entire created universe. There is nothing in creation that surpasses the Order that is in place due to brahman, in which the world functions. How would this be established? By knowing, from the upaniShad-s, that brahman is the inmost Self of every entity in creation, it becomes clear that there is nothing closest, intimate to oneself than one’s Self. This Self is being termed ‘brahman’ by the upaniShad. This One-only Self, though eternal and is pure consciousness, owing to the upAdhi-s (limiting adjuncts) created by names and forms, etc., appears as though many in number. The power that brings about this many-ness is none other than this Atman Itself in Its Pure Existence. In other words, the Pure Existence that is Atman alone is what appears as this created universe by Its unimaginable power. Where can one identify this Self in oneself? It is the duty of the aspirant to take up this question and ponder the shAstram and his own experience and ‘locate’ It in his own self, the mind-apparatus , where alone one can recognize the Self as the sentient being. Continue reading